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Syllabus-RF 2016-07-20T05:49:09+00:00

RF and Microwave Course Syllabus

  • Introduction to RF and Microwaves

    • Spectrum of RF and Microwave Frequencies
    • Frequency bands and Regions of Spectrum Allocations
    • Time and Frequency Domains
    • Fourier series and Fourier Transform
    • Modulation (Heterodyning) and Frequency-Shifting
    • The Decibel for Power Ratios
    • Summation of Voltages and Mean Power
    • Representation of Power-Voltages  dBm, dBW, dBµV/m
    • Motivation for Wireless (Radio) communication
    • Modeling Lumped and Distributed Components at Radio Frequencies
  • Noise in Communication Systems

    • Introduction
    • Classification of Noises and Thermal Noise
    • Power Spectral Density of Noise
    • Band-Limited Noise, Amplitude and Phase Noise
    • Noise Factor and Noise Figure
    • Matching the Noise Figure to Input Noise Level
    • Noise Temperature
    • The Notion of Excess Noise
    • Noise Factor of an Attenuator, Divider, Combiner
    • Noise Factor of a Cascade
    • Sensitivity
    • Noise and Sensitivity of a Receiving RF Chain Cascade
    • Measurement Methods of Noise Factor
    • Noise and Sensitivity Performance with Antennas, G/T
    • Design-Rules for minimizing System Noise
  • Non-Linearity Phenomenon

    • Introduction and Non-Linearity Phenomenon
    • Spurious Signals
    • One-dB Compression Point
    • AM/AM and AM/PM below and into Compression
    • Representing a Memoryless Response by a Power Series
    • Harmonic Stimulus: Single and Tow-Tones – Intermodulation
    • In-Band and Harmonics Spectrum
    • 2nd and 3rd Order Intercept Points
    • Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (3rd Order IM’s) SFDR3
    • Characterizing Non-Linearity of a Cascade of Blocks
    • Measuring Non-Linearity
    • Design-Rules for minimizing System Non-Linearity
  • Performance Optimization of RF Chains

    • Review Design Rules for optimizing System Noise and Non-Linearity
    • Conflicts in the Rules and the need to Compromise
    • Fixed-Gain System Design
    • “Head-Room” based Design
    • Variable-Gain System Design (AGC)
    • Design for a Tx-Chain and an Rx-Chain
    • Demonstration of a Design via an Excel Example
    • Software-Defined Radio – The RF FE and the ADC
    • Demonstration an Optimization for SDR
  • Propagation of EM Waves

    • EM Waves
    • The Atmosphere and Classification of its Layers
    • Characteristics of the Wireless Path (Channel)
    • Free-Space Propagation of Waves – Friis Equation
    • Link Budget and Free-Space Path Losses
    • Effective Isotropic Radiated Power – EIRP
    • Line-of-Sight (LOS) above Earth
    • Path Loss for Communications over the Horizon
    • Propagation in Urban Regions – HATA Models
    • Log-Normal Shadowing and Shaow-Margin (Numerical Example)
    • Indoors Communications – Measurements and a Computational Model
    • Waves Propagation over Flat Earth
    • Point-to-Point Communications with an Obstacle – Diffraction (Fresnel)
    • Rayleigh (fast) Fading and Fade-Margin
    • Doppler Effect
    • Scattering and Reflection (Radar Cross Section – RCS)
    • Ground-wave Propagation (Ranges vs. Frequencies)
    • Sky Waves, Day/Night Frequencies
    • Microwave Links, Ray Bending in Atmospheric Propagation
    • Ducts, Tropospheric Propagation
  • Transmission Lines and Distributed Systems

    • Introduction to Transmission Lines and Familiar Examples
    • Lumped and Distributed Systems
    • The Telegraph Equations and the Waves Solution
    • The Wave Equation – Forward and Reverse Waves
    • Characteristic Impedance and Propagation Velocity
    • The Load (Relative to Zo) Effect on the Reflected Wave
    • Types of Transmission Lines (Coaxial, Conductor-Pair, Printed – Microstrip, Stripline)
    • Standing-Wave in a Transmission-Line
    • Reflection Coefficient and Voltage-Standing-Wave-Ratio (VSWR)
    • Efficiency of Power-Transfer
    • Terminations (Source and Load) of Transmission Lines
    • Short, Open, and Matched Loads’ Impedance as viewed at the end of a Variable-Length Transmission Line
    • Reflection Parameters
    • Transmission Parameters
    • Wave representation of Two-Port and the S-Parameters
    • Phase Velocity
    • Group Velocity
    • Dispersion
  • The Smith Chart and Load Matching

    • Smith Chart – Impedance on the reflection plane
    • Review of Transmission Lines and normalized impedances (by Z0)
    • Display of Smith Chart – Constant Resistance and Reactance Circles
    • Presenting Admittance in the Smith Chart
    • Numerical Examples
    • Fixed SWR Circles
    • Finding the Impedance seen into a Loaded Reactive Circuit
    • Impedance Matching – L, Π, T, Sections, Transmission Lines and Stubs
    • Bandwidth of Matching Networks
    • Quarter Wavelength Transformer
  • Transmit and Receive Architectures

    • Heterodyne and Super-Heterodyne Receiver
    • Intermediate Frequencies, Image Frequency, Heterodyning with/without Spectral Mirroring
    • Input Band Filtering of Interference and Noise at Image Frequency
    • An Example of an FM Receiver
    • Transmission and Reception via Direct Conversion – In-Phase and Quadrature (I-Q) Mixing
    • Design Considerations for an RFIC transceiver
    • Software Defined Radio (SDR)
  • Spectral Analysis

    • Signals in time and Frequency Domain
    • Types of Spectrum Analyzers
    • Basic Block Diagram of an Analog SA
    • The SA as a Receiver
    • Selectivity, AGC, LO Phase Noise
    • Microwaves Spectrum Analyzer
    • Frequency Resolution and RBW
    • Limitations on the Sweep Rate
    • RF Attenuator
    • IF Amplification
    • Shape Factor of the RBW Filter and Sweep Rate
    • Noise Floor
    • Video Signal Filtering (Post-Detection)
    • Filtering by Averaging Screens
    • SA Controls (Span, RBW, Att, VBW)
    • Dynamic Range
    • Detector Types and their Characteristics
    • Sampling and the Sampling Theorem
    • Spectrum of a Uniformly Sampled Signal
    • Artifacts in Digitally Processed Spectrum Display
    • Side-Lobes in Frequency Domain and Windowing
    • RBW broadening by Windowing
    • 2nd and 3rd Order Distortions and Spurii – Identification of Saturation in the SA
    • Effect of LO Phase Noise
    • Residual FM
    • Time Domain Measurements – Zero Span
    • Signal Power response in time
    • Intermodulation Measurements
    • Intermodulation with two-tones Stimulus
    • Adjacent channel power (ACP)
    • Adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR)
    • Tracking Generator Configuration and Scalar Network Analyzer Measurements
    • Demonstration of SA operation and Measurements
  • RF and Microwave Passive Devices

    • Active and Passive Devices
    • Active: Amplifiers, Frequency Sources, Mixers, Antennas
    • Passive: Filters, Duplexers/Multiplexers, Antennas, Mixers, Couplers, Dividers/Combiners
    • Power Dividers and Combiners – Coherent, Incoherent and Partial Summation
    • Isolators and Circulators
    • Phase Shifter
    • Attenuators, T and Π Pads
    • Cables and Coaxial Connectors
    • Switches
    • S Parameters of Passives (Unitary Property for Lossless Passives)
  • Mixers

    • What’s a Mixer?
    • Frequency Shifting – Up- and Down-Conversion
    • Simple Diode Mixer
    • Double Balanced Mixer
    • Performance Parameters of a Mixer
    • Isolation
    • 1 dB Compression
    • VSWR
    • Conversion Loss
    • I/Q Mixer Imbalance
    • Effect of Imbalance on EVM
    • Sub-Harmonic Mixing
  • Filters

    • Characterizing Filters
    • Bandwidth
    • Quality Factor
    • Passband Insertion Loss
    • Ripple
    • Group Delay and GDV
    • Shape Factor
    • Prototype Normalized Response
    • Chebyshev Filter
    • Butterworth Filter
    • Bessel Filter
    • Eliptic Filter
    • Determining the Filter Order
    • Implementation Examples: Lumped Case
    • Implementation Examples: Printed Case
    • Additional Implementation Technologies: Resonators, YIG, Coaxial, Dielectric
  • Frequency Sources and Synthesizers

    • Objectives and uses of Frequency/Clock Sources
    • Classical Oscillators, Quartz and SAW Oscillators
    • Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)
    • YIG Oscillators
    • PLL Based Synthesizer
    • Basic PLL
    • Basics of a PLL Synthesizer
    • Analog PLL Synthesizer
    • Multi-Loop Synthesizer
    • Digital Synthesizer – Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS)
    • Phase Noise
    • Phase noise of a Crystal Source, of a VCO
    • Phase Noise in a PLL Synthesizer
    • Calculating Jitter from Phase-Noise Measurements
  • Vector Network Analyzer

    • Introduction to the Network Analyzer
    • Measurement Types Performed by the VNA
    • Scalar and Vector Network Analysis
    • Review of Transmission Lines
    • Transmission and Reflection Parameters
    • S parameters
    • Construction of the VNA
    • Coupling to the Measured Signals
    • Detection Types
    • Dynamic Range
    • T/R Setup versus S-Parameters Measurements
    • Types of Measurements Errors
    • Basic Error Models and Calibration
    • One-Port and Two-Port Models
    • Review of Calibration Methodologies for Minimization of Errors
    • Measurements Review – Power Sweep for AM/AM, AM/PM, and Harmonics
    • Time Domain Measurements (TDR)
    • Demonstration of VNA operation and Measurements
  • Digital Modulations

    Introduction/basic concepts
    • Digital Communication System
    • Coding Rate
    • Eb/No – The Normalized SNR
    • Digital Modulation Types
    • Digital Modulation Signals
    • Received Complex Envelope
    • Digital Modulator
    Digital Modulation with Single Waveform (QAM)
    • PSK-Phase Shift Keying
    • ASK-Amplitude Shift Keying (PAM)
    • QAM (square grid) -Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
    • APSK
    • Variations of QAM
    • Receiver for Single Waveform Modulation
    • Matched Filter, Correlator, Nyquist Theorem
    • QAM performances: Waveforms, Spectrum, BW, Probability of error
    Digital Modulation with M Orthogonal Waveforms-M-OK
    • Pulse Position Modulation-PPM
    • Walsh Hadamard
    • MFSK
    • Transmitter
    • Coherent/Non Coherent Receiver for M-OK
    • Performances: BW and Probability of error
  • Multiple Access Methods

    Introduction
    • Resource Allocation
    • Duplexing
    • Multiplexing
    • Multiple Access
    Time Division
    Frequency Division
    Code Division
    • Frequency Hopping
    • DS Modulation
    Random Access
    Applications and design considerations
    • Frequency Division Duplexing – FDD/Time Division Duplexing – TDD
    • CDMA vs. Time division and Frequency Division
  • OFDM, OFDMA

    Multi-Carrier methods
    • Orthogonality concept
    • Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing – OFDM
    • Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access – OFDMA
    • Transmitter / Receiver implementation
    OFDM characteristic
    • Cyclic prefix
    • OFDM Waveforms
    • OFDM Spectrum
    Design Considerations and Applications
    • Multicarrier Technology Advantages
    • Fast Scheduling and Link Adaptation
    • Throughput Maximization by Adaptive Transmission
    • Implementation in LTE
    PAPR – peak-to-average power ratio PAPR Mitigation Techniques
  • Antennas

    • The Role of the Antenna
    • Review of EM Waves in Space and Matching in Transmission Lines
    • The Antenna Characteristics
    • Frequency Range
    • Antenna Directivity and Gain
    • Antenna Pattern
    • Polar Pattern Display
    • Cartesian Pattern Display
    • Beamwidth
    • Main Lobe and Side-Lobes
    • Front-to-Back Ratio
    • Antenna Aperture
    • Polarization of EM Waves
    • Polarization Types: Linear (Vertical, Horizontal) Circular
    • Far-Field Range
    • High-Level Review of Basic Antennas
    • Half-Wave Dipole
    • Dipole over a Back-screen
    • Corner Reflector
    • Ground Plane and the Monopole
    • Slot Antennas
    • Long-Wire Antennas
    • Loop Antennas
    • Helix Antenna
    • Yagi Antenna
    • Broadband Antennas (Logarithmic, Spiral)
    • Horn Antenna
    • Printed Antennas
    • Microstrip Antenna
    • Fractal Antennas
    • Short Backfire Antenna
    • Antenna Arrays
    • Phased Arrays
    • Adaptive Arrays
    • Parabolic Reflector Antenna
    • Converting Balanced and Unbalanced Lines (Baluns)
    • Radomes
    • DAS – Distributed Antenna Systems
    • Antenna Measurements
    • (Far and Near-Field Measurements)
  • RF and MW Design with Simulation Software-CST

    • Introduction & Built-In Help
    • Basic Modeling
    • CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Solver Overview
    • Ports, Materials & Boundary Conditions
    • Result Handling & Template-based Postprocessing
    • Optimizer Overview
    • Workflow Example 1: Microstrip – Quarter-wave Transformer
    • Workflow Example 2: Printed LPF filter
    • Homework: Wilkinson Power Divider
  • Demonstration and Hand-on of Practical Measurements

    Spectrum Analyzer (SA) – Measurements Demo
    • Parameters and Measurement types of the SA
    • Resolution and Video Bandwidth
    • Attenuation and Scaling
    • Channel Power
    • Adjacent Channel Power
    • Sensitivity and Noise Floor: Dependence on RBW, ATT, Improvement with LNA
    • WCDMA signal Peak-to-Average Power (PAR) Measurements
    • Time-Domain Measurements on Zero Span of a Pulsed Periodic Signal
    • Demo of Heterodyning – Sum and Difference Frequencies, and Leakages
    Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)– Measurements Demo
    • Setting Up and Calibrating the VNA
    • S11 of an Antenna
    • S11 of a Variable length Loaded Transmission Line
    • Power Sweep Measurements of an Amplifier and Displaying AM/AM, AM/PM and Harmonics
    • Filter Response including Amplitude, Phase and GDV
    • Response of a Differentiator
    Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) – Measurements Demo
    • QPSK Signal Demo: EVM, Eye-Pattern, Eye-Opening, PAR, Spectrum
    • Same as above with Additive Noise
    • I/Q Mixer Modulation Demo, Demonstration of the Image Rejection
    • OFDM Signal Spectrum, Time0Gated Spectrum of Sections of the Symbol

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